When formatting a citation in APA style, pay particular attention to italics, punctuation, indentation, and capitalization.
Many more samples of citations presented in the APA style can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Please consult this book or a librarian for help with unusual resources.
All of the following samples are taken from:
(In the above sample, the name of the organization is the author. Note that only proper names are capitalized in the title, and the edition number follows the title.)
Book: (This sample from Purdue OWL)
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Book with an Editor:
Robinson, D. N. (Ed.). (1992). Social discourse and moral judgment. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Note: italicize the title of the book and do not capitalize any words in titles except the first word, proper names, and after a colon. Use the author's or editor's initials only for first and middle names.
Chapter from an Edited Volume or Anthology:
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Fuentes, A. (2016). Contemporary evolutionary theory in biological anthropology: Insight into human evolution, genomics and challenges to racialized pseudo-science. Revista Cuicuilco, 23(65), 293-304.
Note: Do not set off the title of the article with quotes, italics, underlines, or capital letters (except for the first word, proper names or after a colon). Italicize the title of the journal and capitalize all words in the title of the journal. This sample includes the volume number (23) which is italicized to set it off from the other numbers. The issue number (65) appears in parentheses and is not italicized. You will also notice that there is no space left between the volume number and the first parenthesis for the issue number.
Scholarly Article (with multiple authors):
Calvo, M. G., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 221-243. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MOEM.0000040153.26156.ed
Note: This sample includes the volume number (28), which is italicized to set it off from the page numbers. There is no issue number in this example because the journal is paginated by volume. Provide the DOI when available for electronic documents. If a DOI is not available for a scholarly article retrieved online, you should supply the URL of the journal's homepage (NOT the URL from the database). Note authors' names, indentations, spare use of capital letters, page numbers, and use of periods and commas.
Popular Article (with two authors):
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.
Note: Do not set off the title of the article with quotes, italics, underlines, or capital letters (except for the first word, proper names, or after a colon). Italicize the title of the magazine and capitalize all keywords in the title. Italicize the volume number to set it off from the page numbers.
Scwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Note: Do not set off the title of the article with quotes, italics, underlines, or capital letters (except for the first word, proper names or after a colon). Italicize the title of the newspaper and capitalize all keywords in the title of the newspaper.
Webpage Examples: (These samples from Purdue OWL)
Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication, or n.d. if no date). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Eco, U. (2015). How to write a thesis [PDF file]. (Farina C. M. & Farina F., Trans.) Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/...How_to_write_a_thesis/.../Umberto+Eco-How+to+Write+... (Original work published 1977).
If the page's author is not listed, start with the title. If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.):
Spotlight Resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/about_the_owl/owl_information/spotlight_resources.html
Only include a date of access when page content is likely to change over time (ex: if you're citing a wiki):
Purdue University Writing Lab [Facebook page]. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/PurdueUniversityWritingLab/
Nonperiodical Web Document or Report (Examples: government data such as U.S. Census): (This sample from Purdue OWL)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication, or n.d. if no date). Title of document. Retrieved from https://Web address
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Note: Italicize the title of the website but do not capitalize any words except the first, proper names, and the first word following a colon.
For citing company or industry reports from the library's MarketLine database, also see:
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7.07
If map is within a book, cite as In Title of book after [Type of map].
Cite primary contributors in the Author's space followed by their contributing role in parentheses.
Other forms for [Type of map] include:
Use (n.d.) for No date.
Title of map. (Year). [Type of Map]. Publisher Location: Publisher.
Plattsburgh, Clinton County: Dannemora, Peru, Keeseville, Champlain, Rouses Point, New York State, 3rd ed.
(1999). [Road map]. Clifton Park, NY: Jimapco.
Berlin, N.Y. - Mass. - VT. (1988). [Topographical map]. reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.
Follow the map citation guidelines as above, but also include a stable URL where the map is found.
Title of map. (Year). [Type of map]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xx
Manhattan sightseeing map. (2010). [City map]. Retrieved from http://www.ny.com/maps/shopmap.html
MTA Metro-North railroad. (2010). [Railroad map]. Retrieved from http://www.mta.info/mnr/html/mnrmap.htm
MTA New York City subway. (2010). [Subway map]. Retrieved from http://www.mta.info/nyct/maps/submap.htm
Since the APA manual does not give direct information for citing every type of source, including charts or graphs, they instruct you to follow the example that is most like the source you are trying to cite. Be sure to provide enough information so your readers can locate the source on their own. When possible provide author or creator, year of publication, title, and publishing and/or retrieval data. When citing a chart, graph or map it may be best to follow the citation style for the format in which the information is presented.
All captions for charts should follow the guidelines below for captions for figures.
Captions for Figures (Charts, Graphs, and Maps): Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 5.20-5.25
All captions should be labeled as Figure followed by a number. The caption should begin with a descriptive phrase and include a citation to the original source and copyright information at the end.
Figure 1. Relations between trust beliefs and school adjustment at T1 and loneliness changes during development in early childhood. All paths attained significance at p> .05. Adapted from “The Relation Between Trust Beliefs and Loneliness During Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adulthood,” by K. J. Rotenberg, N. Addis, L. R. Betts, A. Corrigan, C. Fox, Z. Hobson, & … and M. J. Boulton, 2010, Personality and social psychology bulletin, 36, p. 1090. Copyright 2010 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Documentaries or Feature Films:
David, L., Bender, L., Burns S.Z. (Producers), & Guggenheim, P.D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
Note: If a film is not available in wide distribution, add the following to the citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).
More examples and samples of papers written using the APA style can be found at the following websites: