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Waidner-Spahr Library

Citing Sources: Sample Notes and Bibliography Citations

Examples

The following examples display the entry first as it would appear in the bibliography (B), the footnote/endnote (F), and the shortened footnote/endnote (SF), which is used when a source is cited more than once. Notes are numbered consecutively throughout a paper and include references to specific page numbers. Bibliographic entries use hanging indentation, while footnotes and endnotes use paragraph-style indentation. See the information box to the right for more information.

 

Books

Books with One Author:

Bibliography: 

Nagel, Joane. Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy. New York: Routledge, 2016.

 

Footnote: 

    1. Joane Nagel, Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy (New York: Routledge, 2016), 107-8.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    1. Nagel, Gender and Climate Change, 107-8.
 

Books with Multiple Authors:

Two Authors:

Bibliography: 

Weinberg, Arthur, and Lila Weinberg. Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980.

 

Footnote:

    2. Arthur Weinberg and Lila Weinberg, Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel (New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980), 56.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    2. Weinberg and Weinberg, Clarence Darrow, 56.
 

Four or More Authors:

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):

Footnote:

    2. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s...

 

Shortened Footnote:

    2. Barnes et al., Plastics...

 

Work in an Anthology (a book with an editor who collected essays by different authors):

Bibliography:

Dayan, Peter. “The Romantic Renaissance.” In Poetry in France, edited by Keith Aspley and Peter France, 333-43. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992.

 

Footnote: 

    3. Peter Dayan, “The Romantic Renaissance,” in Poetry in France, ed. Keith Aspley and Peter France (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992), 341.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    3. Dayan, “The Romantic Renaissance,” 341.

 

Books with Edition Other than the First:

Bibliography:

Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History. 5th ed. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

 

Footnote:

    4. Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History, 5th ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harland Davidson, 1998), 243.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    4. Rolle, California, 243.

 

Book with Editor in Place of Author:

Bibliography: 

Hall, Kermit L, and James W. Ely, Jr., eds. The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

 

Footnote:

    5. Kermit L. Hall and James W. Ely, Jr., eds, The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 178.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    5. Hall and Ely, The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions, 178.

 

Editor, Translator, Or Compiler Instead Of Author:

Bibliography:

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

 

Footnote: 

    6. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    6. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

 

Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online:

Cite these as you would a traditional book, but add the medium in which the book was accessed or a DOI or URL to the end of the citation. Since some e-readers do not use traditional pages to cite locations in a text you can include a chapter, section, or other information to cite a location. 

Bibliography:

Mackenzie, F. A. Korea's Fight for Freedom. Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain Books, 2004. Kindle edition.

 

Footnote: 

    7. F. A. Mackenzie, Korea's Fight for Freedom (Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain Books, 2004), location 35. Kindle edition.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    7. Mackenzie, Korea's Fight for Freedom.

 

Bibliography:

Thrall, Grant Ian. Land Use and Urban Form. New York: Methuen, 1987. http://rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf

 

Footnote:

    8. Grant Ian Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form (New York: Methuen, 1987), http://rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    8. Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form.

 

Bibliography: 

Park, Soyeon. Underground. Seoul, South Korea: Daltagi, 2011. PDF e-book.

 

Footnote:

    9. Soyeon Park, Underground (Seoul, South Korea: Daltagi, 2011), location 55. PDF e-book.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    9. Park, Underground.

 

Articles, Magazines, and Newspapers

Scholarly Article:

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Bibliography:

Robertson, Noel. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual." Classical Philology 75, no. 2 (1980): 1-22.

 

Footnote: 

    10. Noel Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual," Classical Philology 75, no. 2 (1980): 16.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    10. Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual," 16.

 

Electronic Journals:

Bibliography:

Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

 

Footnote: 

    11. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    11. Bent,  “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” 141.

 

Magazines:

Bibliography:

King, Victoria. "The Domesday Book." History Magazine, October/November 2001, 275-78.

 

Footnote:

    12. Victoria King, "The Domesday Book," History Magazine, October/November 2001, 276.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    12. King, "The Domesday Book," 276.

 

Online Magazines:

Bibliography:

YoungSmith, Barron. "Green Room." Slate, February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

 

Footnote:

    13. Barron YoungSmith, "Green Room," Slate, February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    13. YoungSmith, "Green Room."

 

Newspaper Article:

Bibliography:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

 

Footnote:

    14. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    14. Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.”

 

Newspaper Article (anonymous author):

Bibliography:

"Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln." New York Times, July 16, 1858, 4.

 

Footnote: 

    15. "Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln," New York Times, July 16, 1858, 4.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    15.  "Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln," 4.

 

Unpublished Materials

Letters (Unpublished):

References to conversations or to letters, e-mail or text messages, and the like received by the author are usually run in to the text or given in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography. The Chicago Manual of Style 16, 14.222.

Footnote: 

    16. Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    16. Conlon, e-mail.

 

Unpublished Manuscripts:

Bibliography:

Cotter, Cory. "The Weakest Link: The Argument for On-Wrist Band Welding." Unpublished manuscript, last modified December 3, 2008. Microsoft Word file.

 

Footnote:

    17. Cory Cotter, "The Weakest Link: The Argument for On-Wrist Band Welding" (unpublished manuscript, December 3, 2008), Microsoft Word file.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    17. Cotter, "The Weakest Link."

 

Lectures, papers presented at meetings, and the like:

Bibliography:

D'Erasmo, Stacy. "The Craft and Career of Writing." Lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000.

 

Footnote: 

    18. Stacy D'Erasmo, "The Craft and Career of Writing" (Lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000).

 

Shortened Footnote:

    18. D'Erasmo, "The Craft and Career of Writing."

 

Manuscript Collections:

Bibliography:

Egmont Manuscripts. Phillipps Collection. University of Georgia Library.

 

Footnote: 

    19. James Oglethorpe to the Trustees, 13 January 1733, Phillipps Collection of Egmont Manuscripts,14200:13, University of Georgia Library.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    19. Oglethorpe to the Trustees, 1733, Egmont Manuscipts.

 

Bibliography:

Kallen, Horace. Papers. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.

 

Footnote: 

    20. Alvin Johnson, memorandum, 1937, file 36, Horace Kallen Papers, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    20. Memorandum, 1937, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

 

Bibliography:

Revere Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.

 

Footnote:

    21. Revere's Waste and Memoranda Book (vol. 1, 1761-83; vol. 2, 1783-97), Revere Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    21. Waste and Memoranda Book, Revere Family Papers.

 

Specialized Formats

Website:

Bibliography: 

National Park Service. “Catoctin Mountain Park.” Last modified November 8, 2011. http://www.nps.gov/cato/index.htm.

 

Footnote: 

    22. “Catoctin Mountain Park,” National Park Service, last modified November 8, 2011, http://www.nps.gov/cato/index.htm.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    22. “Catoctin Mountain Park.”

 

Bibliography:

Neuman, Scott. “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?” National Public Radio. November 15, 2011. http://www.npr.org/2011/11/15/142359267/as-occupy-camps-close-whats-next-for-movement.

 

Footnote: 

    23. Scott Neuman, “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?,” National Public Radio, November 15, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/11/15/142359267/as-occupy-camps-close-whats-next-for-movement.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    23. Neuman,  “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?”

 

Bibliography:

"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN.com. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

 

Footnote: 

    24. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN.com, Last modified January 30, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    24. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.”

 

Cases and Court Decisions:

Note: Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. The examples in this section, based on the recommendations in The Bluebook, are accordingly given in note form only. The Chicago Manual of Style 16, 14.283.

A. Constitutions,

Footnote:

    25. U.S. Const. art. I,  § 4, cl. 2.

 

Shortened Footnote:

    26. U.S. Const. amend. XIV,  § 2.

 

B. United States Supreme Court decisions,

Footnote: 

    27. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd., 525 U.S. 366 (1999).

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    27. AT&T, 525 U.S. at 366-367.

 

C. Lower federal-court decisions,

Footnote: 

    28. United States v. Dennis, 183 F. 201 (2d Cir. 1950).

 

Shortened Footnote:

    28. Dennis, 183 F. at 202.

 

D. State- and local-court decisions,

Footnote:

    29. Williams v. Davis, 27 Cal. 2d 746 (1946).

 

Shortened Footnote: 

    29. Williams, 27 Cal. 2d 746.

 

Legislative and Executive Documents:

Note: Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. The examples in this section, based on the recommendations in The Bluebook, are accordingly given in note form only. The Chicago Manual of Style 16, 14.283.

A. Laws and statutes,

Footnote:

    30. Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002).

 

Footnote: 

    31. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2002).

 

B. Bills and resolutions,

Footnote:

    32. Homeland Security Act of 2002, H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

 

C. Hearings,

Footnote:

    33. Homeland Security Act of 2002: Hearing on H.R. 5005, Day 3, Before the Select Comm. on Homeland Security, 107th Cong. 203 (2002) (statement of David Walker, Comptroller General of the United States).

 

Films

Bibliography:

‚ÄčAn Inconvenient Truth. Directed by Davis Guggenheim. Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 2006. DVD.

Footnote:
1. An Inconvenient Truth, directed by Davis Guggenheim (Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 2006), DVD.

Shortened Footnote:

1. An Inconvenient Truth.

Table of Contents

Use this list to jump to specific sample types:

Information about Footnotes and Endnotes

Notes and Bibliography

The Notes and Bibliography style of Chicago citations uses footnotes or endnotes to introduce resources as they are cited in a document. There is a bibliography at the end of the document.

When using the Notes and Bibliography style, be aware of the following:

  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes all appear together at the end of the document, before the bibliography.
  • Footnotes use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ...) to consecutively count, while endnotes use Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ...).
  • Use the abbreviation “ibid.” (“the same place”) with a page number when repeating the same source that is used immediately before it. E.g.: Ibid., 63.
  • In footnotes and endnotes, all authors’ names are written naturally: First name Last name.
  • Bibliographic entries have hanging indentation (all lines after the first are indented to be underneath the first line), while footnotes and endnotes use paragraph-style indentation (where all lines have the same indentation and fall directly underneath the previous line).