Skip to main content

Waidner-Spahr Library

Citing Sources: ASA


When writing a citation in the ASA style, pay particular attention to italics, punctuation, indentation, and capitalization. With the ASA Style, quotations and borrowed phrases are indicated as such within the text, and citations include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. With quotes or references to specific pages, page numbers are also included.

Many more samples of citations presented in the ASA style can be found in the American Sociological Association Style Guide. Please consult this book or a librarian for help.

All of the following samples are adapted from:

American Sociological Association. 2014. American Sociological Association Style Guide. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.


In-Text Citation Examples:

  • Within the Text: ...Giddens (2017) argues that...

  • In Parentheses: ...for validity and authenticity (Davis 2005).

  • With a Page Number: ...Orol (2010:1).

  • Two Authors: ...(Danziger and Lee 2010).

  • For three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation, and et al. afterward: ...(Shanahan, Porfeli, and Mortimer 2005)...(Shanahan et al. 2005).

  • For more than three authors, use et al. in all citations: ...(Shanahan et al. 2005).


References Page:

NOTE: For electronic books and articles obtained from databases and websites:

  • Do not include page numbers.

  • Include a date of access.

  • Include a URL in parentheses.

  • For articles with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), include page numbers, do not include access date, and the DOI does not need parentheses around it.


Book with Multiple Authors:

Edin, Kathryn, and Maria Kefalas. 2005. Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Book with an Editor:

Waters, Mary, Patrick J. Carr, Maria J. Kefalas, and Jennifer Holdaway, eds. 2011. The Transition to Adulthood in the Twenty-First Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Electronic Book:

Dietz, Bernadette E., and Lynn Harper, eds. 2008. Scaffolding for Student Success in Learning. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 10, 2010 (


Book Chapter:

Montez, Jennifer K., and Mark D. Hayward. 2011. "Early Life Conditions and Later Life Mortality." Pp. 187-206 in International Handbook of Adult Mortality, edited by R. G. Rogers and E. Crimmins. New York: Springer Publishers.


Journal Article:

Chang, Virginia W., and Diane S. Lauderdale. 2009. "Fundamental Cause Theory, Technological Innovation, and Health Disparities: The Case of Cholesterol in the Era of Statins." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50(3):245-60.


Electronic Journal Article:

Schafer, Daniel W., and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. "Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis." Journal of Statistics Education 11(1). Retrieved July 11, 2010 (


Newspaper Article:

Guiles, Melinda, and Krystal Miller. 1990. "Mazda and Mitsubishi-Chrysler Venture Cut Output, Following Big Three's Lead." Wall Street Journal, January 12, pp. A2, A12.


Magazine Article:

Anderson, Elijah. 1994. "The Code of the Streets." Atlantic Monthly, May 1994, pp. 81-94.



American Sociological Association. 2006. "Status Committees." Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association, Retrieved July 11, 2010. (


Social Media Posts:

Use a footnote.

Text: The American Sociological Association mentioned the meeting directly on its Facebook page.1

Footnote: 1. American Sociological Association's Facebook page, accessed June 6, 2014,



Judge, Mike. 1999. Office Space. DVD. Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth Century Fox. 

Note: Mike Judge is the director. The director's name goes before the date and title, with last name first.

Citing in ASA (American Sociological Association) Style

General Information:

  • The ASA citation style is typically used by Sociology.
  • Current copies of the American Sociological Association Style Guide can be found at the Circulation Desk.
  • Remember that your list of resources should be presented in alphabetical order by author's last name.

American Sociological Association Style Guide


RefWorks Logo

RefWorks is a Bibliographic Management Tool to which Dickinson College subscribes. Please visit the RefWorks Guide for information about what RefWorks is and how to use it.

Click here to access the Legacy version of RefWorks.